The history of diamond cuts can be traced back to India where diamonds were polished along their natural facets. By the early 20th century a few diamond cuts had been developed to achieve maximum scintillation and sparkle in a brilliant. The most popular cut was so-called ‘full cut’, or round brilliant cut of 57 facets.
Diamond cutter at work.
Automatic polishing (?).
In the workshop of Brillianty ALROSA.
ALROSA polished products.
A brilliant consists of an upper half (crown) and a lower half (pavilion) separated in the middle by a girdle used for securing a stone into a piece of jewellery.
The largest facet of the crown is the table surrounded by 32 upper facets (including star facets, kite or upper main facets, and upper half facets). The pavilion consists of 24 facets (pavilion facets and lower girdle facets), and the lower tip called the culet (that can be either flat or pointed as in the ‘Russian cut’).
The creator of the modern cut is Marcel Tolkowsky who in the early 20th century calculated the parameters of an ideal round 57-facet diamond. The proportions of an ideal diamond must be as follows: table size — 53%, crown angle — 34.5%, pavilion angle — 40.75%.
The goal of any quality cut is not only best achievable brilliance and fire, but minimal possible waste resulting in the largest carat yield of the diamond when polished.
Today special computer softwear is used to determine optimal proportions of the cut allowing to produce a diamond with a remarkable brilliance and fire.
A few dozens of diamond cuts have been developed, including versions of the round brilliant cut, «marquise», «princess», «oval», «pear», «emerald», «heart», «baguette» and others.
A diamond cutter’s work is like that of a sculptor: you have to cut off the stone to find an artwork in it.
Diamond cutting is comprised of a number of simple operations, such as planning, cleaving or sawing, bruting, faceting and polishing. The majority of these operations are performed manually, and only for cutting cheaper smaller stones robots and semiautomatic machines can be used. A great extent of handwork is explained by the fact that the mechanical properties of a diamond are anisotropic, i.e. directionally dependent; and only expert hands of a skilled craftsman and his keen eyes are capable of producing a high quality polished diamond.
Brillianty ALROSA (ALROSA Brilliants), a cutting and polishing division within the structure of ALROSA Co. Ltd., is one of the largest diamond manufacturers in Russia. It offers a wide variety of certified polished diamonds of its own production of different cuts, caratage, color and clarity to individuals and jewellery manufacturers. It also manufactures customized goods, and sells diamonds to legal entities.
In 2013, Brillianty ALROSA (ALROSA Brilliants) produced four unique large diamond, from 5 to 47 carat weight, which were sold at international auctions.